The most accurate NCP algorithm, was used to generate a 16 year time series (2002 to 2018) from MODIS-A to assess climate and environmental drivers of NCP across the South Atlantic basin. Positive correlations between wind speed anomalies and NCP anomalies were observed in the central South Atlantic Gyre (SATL), and the Benguela Upwelling (BENG), indicating that autotrophic conditions may be fuelled by local wind-induced nutrient inputs to the mixed layer. Sea Level Height Anomalies (SLHA), used as an indicator of mesoscale eddies, were negatively correlated with NCP anomalies offshore of the BENG upwelling fronts into the SATL, suggesting autotrophic conditions are driven by mesoscale features. The Agulhas bank and Brazil-Malvinas confluence regions also had a strong negative correlation between SLHA and NCP anomalies, similarly indicating that NCP is forced by mesoscale eddy generation in this region. Positive correlations between SST anomalies and the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) in the SATL, indicated the influence of El Niño events on the South Atlantic Ocean, however the plankton community response was less clear.