Wear-resistant and Adherent Nanodiamond Composite Thin Film for Durable and Sustainable Silicon Carbide Mechanical Seals

Mohamed Egiza, Mohamed Ragab Diab, Abdul Wasy Zia, Koki Murasawa, Nadimul Faisal, Tsuyoshi Yoshitake

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
13 Downloads (Pure)


In response to environmental concerns, there is a growing demand for durable and sustainable mechanical seals, particularly in high-risk industries like chemical, petroleum, and nuclear sectors. This work proposes augmenting the durability and sustainability of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic seals with the application of a nanodiamond composite (NDC) film through coaxial arc plasma deposition (CAPD) in a vacuum atmosphere. The NDC coating, with a smooth surface roughness of Ra = 60 nm as substrate, demonstrated a thickness of 1.1 μm at a deposition rate of 2.6 μm/hr. NDC film has demonstrated exceptional mechanical and tribological characteristics, such as a hardness of 48.5 GPa, Young’s modulus of 496.7 GPa, plasticity index (H/E) of 0.098, and fracture toughness of H3/E2 = 0.46 GPa, respectively. These NDC films showcased commendable adhesion strength (> 60 N), negligible wear, and low friction (≤ 0.18) during dry sliding against a SiC counter material. Raman analysis has confirmed the nanocomposite structure of NDC film, emphasizing the role of highly energetic carbon ions in enhancing film adhesion by forming SiC intermetallic compounds at the interface through the diffusion of silicon atoms from the substrate into the films. The abundance of grain boundaries and rehybridization of carbon sp3 to sp2 bonding is perceived to improve tribological performance. CAPD excels in synthesizing long-life eco-friendly NDC coatings for durable and sustainable mechanical seals, featuring smooth surfaces, superior adhesion, outstanding hardness, and wear resistance, making them high potential candidates for various tribological applications.
Original languageEnglish
Article number205394
Issue number2
Early online date15 May 2024
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jul 2024


  • Arc plasma
  • Diamond-like carbon
  • Dry friction
  • Mechanical seals
  • Nanocomposite
  • Wear-resistance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Surfaces and Interfaces


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