Water–Dispersible Magnetite Montmorillonite Encapsulated Cellulose Beads for Fluoride Removal and their Kinetics and Mechanism

Sapna Nehra, Ankita Dhillon, Rekha Sharma, Manjula Nair, Dinesh Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Water is indispensable to life. The presence of toxic fluoride in water is a problem of grave concern. To address this problem, we have synthesized a water-dispersible magnetite low-cost clay montmorillonite impregnated with cellulose beads (MMTCB) by the dropping technique. Excellent surface chemistry, ease of separation, good swelling behaviour, and smooth operationality contribute to the novelty of the adsorbent. The presence of iron enables the nanoparticle adsorbent to be recovered easily by applying a magnetic field. Pseudo-second-order and Langmuir were found to be the best interpreting models for the experimental adsorption data. The adsorption capacity of MMTCB was found to be 409 mg/g due to the high specific surface area (SBET), i.e. 508.06 m2/g. Thermodynamics parameters predict that the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. There was no significant loss of efficiency even after ten sequential adsorption-desorption cycles. The adsorption mechanism explained by FTIR analysis shows the exchange of the hydroxyl group with the fluoride ion through electrostatic interaction, ion exchange, and hydrogen bonding.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100690
JournalEnvironmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring and Management
Early online date5 Apr 2022
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Beads
  • Cellulose
  • Fluoride
  • Magnetite
  • Montmorillonite
  • Removal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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