Flow simulation studies require an accurate model of the reservoir in terms of its sedimentological architecture. Pixel-based reservoir modeling techniques are often used to model this architecture. There are, however, two problem areas with such techniques. First, several statistical parameters have to be provided whose influence on the resulting model is not readily inferable. Second, conditioning the models to relevant geological data that carry great uncertainty on their own adds to the difficulty of obtaining reliable models and assessing model reliability. The Sequential Indicator Simulation (SIS) method has been used to examine the impact of such uncertainties on the final reservoir model. The effects of varying variogram types, frequencies of lithology occurrence, and the gridblock model orientation with respect to the sedimentological trends are illustrated using different reservoir modeling studies. Results indicate, for example, that the choice of variogram type can have a significant impact on the facies model. Also, reproduction of sedimentological trends and large geometries requires careful parameter selection. By choosing the appropriate modeling strategy, sedimentological principles can be translated into the numerical model. Solutions for dealing with such issues and the geological uncertainties are presented. In conclusion, each reservoir modeling study should begin by developing a thorough quantitative sedimentological understanding of the reservoir under study, followed by detailed sensitivity analyses of relevant statistical and geological parameters.
- Architectural modeling
- Stochastic modeling