Urban (UMaaS) and rural (RMaaS) mobility as a service (MaaS): practical insights from international practitioners and experts

Jenny Milne*, Mark Beecroft, John D. Nelson, Philip Greening, Caitlin Cottrill, Steve Wright

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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The concept and potential of Mobility as a Service (MaaS) has been the subject of significant debate in academia and industry for nearly a decade. There are several city-based Mobility as a Service (MaaS) pilots globally. There remains a significant lack of practitioner evidence of MaaS with the focus on city-based solutions rather than in rural and suburban areas. To that end, this paper asks four research questions to contribute to the gap in Rural MaaS (RMaaS) and Urban MaaS (UMaaS); firstly, is MaaS a mobility option for rural areas given the identified evidence in scientific literature? Secondly, how do practitioner experiences with MaaS (in all areas) differ considering factors like phraseology, geography, available modes, transportation, the origin and implementation stages? Thirdly, what practical learnings can be drawn from practitioners in the field? Fourthly, what is the future of MaaS for rural and urban areas. The research and findings are based upon grey literature and twenty semi-structured interviews with representatives from research or government organisations, public bodies, MaaS technology suppliers, transport operators and experts. Each participant discussed and contributed to the practicalities around real-world applications of MaaS in urban, regional, or rural areas. The analysis produced 2 applied tools which will be useful to practitioners interested in MaaS; a Thematic Map visualising the common matters emerging from the interviews revolving around ‘People, Policy, Practice and Pilots (4Ps); a Practical Framework for Implementing MaaS tool, which can be used by any practitioner at any stage of a MaaS project.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5
JournalEuropean Transport Research Review
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jan 2024


  • MaaS framework
  • Mobility as a service (MaaS)
  • Practical learnings
  • Rural MaaS
  • Urban MaaS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Transportation
  • Mechanical Engineering


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