Universal quantum Hawking evaporation of integrable two-dimensional solitons

Charles W. Robson*, Leone Di Mauro Villari, Fabio Biancalana

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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We show that any soliton solution of an arbitrary two-dimensional integrable equation has the potential to eventually evaporate and emit the exact analogue of Hawking radiation from black holes. From the AKNS matrix formulation of integrability, we show that it is possible to associate a real spacetime metric tensor which defines a curved surface, perceived by the classical and quantum fluctuations propagating on the soliton. By defining proper scalar invariants of the associated Riemannian geometry, and introducing the conformal anomaly, we are able to determine the Hawking temperatures and entropies of the fundamental solitons of the nonlinear Schrödinger, KdV and sine-Gordon equations. The mechanism advanced here is simple, completely universal and can be applied to all integrable equations in two dimensions, and is easily applicable to a large class of black holes of any dimensionality, opening up totally new windows on the quantum mechanics of solitons and their deep connections with black hole physics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number053042
JournalNew Journal of Physics
Publication statusPublished - 29 May 2019


  • analogue gravity
  • black holes
  • nonlinear waves
  • Solitons
  • thermodynamics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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