Underwater depth imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting

Aurora Maccarone, Aongus McCarthy, Ximing Ren, Ryan E. Warburton, Andy M. Wallace, James Moffat, Yvan Petillot, Gerald S. Buller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

164 Citations (Scopus)
128 Downloads (Pure)


A depth imaging system, based on the time-of-flight approach and the time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) technique, was investigated for use in highly scattering underwater environments. The system comprised a pulsed supercontinuum laser source, a monostatic scanning transceiver, with a silicon single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) used for detection of the returned optical signal. Depth images were acquired in the laboratory at stand-off distances of up to 8 attenuation lengths, using per-pixel acquisition times in the range 0.5 to 100 ms, at average optical powers in the range 0.8 nW to 950 μW. In parallel, a LiDAR model was developed and validated using experimental data. The model can be used to estimate the performance of the system under a variety of scattering conditions and system parameters.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)33911-33926
Number of pages16
JournalOptics Express
Issue number26
Publication statusPublished - 28 Dec 2015


Dive into the research topics of 'Underwater depth imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this