We describe a general method for producing ultrahigh-density arrays of aligned metal and semiconductor nanowires and nanowire circuits. The technique is based on translating thin film growth thickness control into planar wire arrays. Nanowires were fabricated with diameters and pitches (center-to-center distances) as small as 8 nanometers and 16 nanometers, respectively. The nanowires have high aspect ratios (up to 106), and the process can be carried out multiple times to produce simple circuits of crossed nanowires with a nanowire junction density in excess of 1011 per square centimeter. The nanowires can also be used in nanomechanical devices; a high-frequency nanomechanical resonator is demonstrated.
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