Triple-band single-layer rectenna for outdoor rf energy harvesting applications

Achilles D. Boursianis, Maria S. Papadopoulou, Stavros Koulouridis, Paolo Rocca, Apostolos Georgiadis, Manos M. Tentzeris, Sotirios K. Goudos*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)
63 Downloads (Pure)


A triple-band single-layer rectenna for outdoor RF energy applications is introduced in this paper. The proposed rectenna operates in the frequency bands of LoRa, GSM-1800, and UMTS-2100 networks. To obtain a triple-band operation, a modified E-shaped patch antenna is used. The receiving module (antenna) of the rectenna system is optimized in terms of its reflection coefficient to match the RF-to-DC rectifier. The final geometry of the proposed antenna is derived by the application of the Moth Search Algorithm and a commercial electromagnetic solver. The impedance matching network of the proposed system is obtained based on a three-step process, including the minimization of the reflection coefficient versus frequency, as well as the minimization of the reflection coefficient variations and the maximization of the DC output voltage versus RF input power. The proposed RF-to-DC rectifier is designed based on the Greinacher topology. The designed rectenna is fabricated on a single layer of FR-4 substrate. Measured results show that our proposed rectenna can harvest RF energy from outdoor (ambient and dedicated) sources with an efficiency of greater than 52%.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3460
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 16 May 2021


  • Antenna optimization
  • Greinacher voltage doubler
  • Impedance matching
  • Moth search algorithm
  • Rectenna
  • RF energy harvesting
  • RF-to-DC rectifier
  • Triple-band operation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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