Translation and validation of a Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) version of the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA)

Jennifer Todd, David Barron, Jane E. Aspell, Evelyn Kheng Lin Toh, Hanoor Syahirah Zahari, Nor Azzatunnisak Mohd Khatib, Viren Swami

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: The 32-item Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) is a widely-used measure of multidimensional interoception. In the present study, we examined the psychometric properties of a Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) translation of the MAIA.

Methods: An online sample of 815 Malaysian Malays (women n = 403) completed a novel translation of the MAIA. Validated measures of trait mindfulness and self-esteem were also completed to facilitate a preliminary assessment of convergent validity.

Results: Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the MAIA items reduced to a 19-item, 3-factor model. The 3-factor model was further tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) alongside the parent 8-factor model. Both models had good fit on some indices, but less-than-ideal fit on other indices. The 3-factor model evidenced comparatively better fit, with fit indices being adequate following modification. Multi-group CFA indicated both the 3-factor model and the 8-factor model had full strict invariance across sex. However, evidence for construct and convergent validity was mixed.

Conclusions: Overall the 3-dimensional Malay MAIA was demonstrated to be both internally consistent and invariant across sex, but further evidence of construct and convergent validity is required. Issues that affect the dimensionality of MAIA scores in the present and extant work are discussed in conclusion.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0231048
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Awareness
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Interoception
  • Malaysia
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Translating
  • Young Adult


Dive into the research topics of 'Translation and validation of a Bahasa Malaysia (Malay) version of the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this