Fatty acid synthase (FAS), one of the main lipogenic enzymes, converts dietary calories into a storage form of energy. The transcription factors, stimulatory proteins 1 and 3 (Sp1 and Sp3), nuclear factor Y (NF-Y), upstream stimulatory factor (USF) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) have cognate binding sites on the promoter of the FAS gene. It was shown that Sp1 and NF-Y interact co-operatively at the diet-induced DNase I-hypersensitive site at position -500. Adjacent binding sites for NF-Y and Sp1 have also been found between -71 and -52, and -91 and -83. cAMP regulation is mediated via the inverted CAAT element (ICE) at -99 to -92, which binds NF-Y. The FAS insulin-responsive element 3 (FIRE3)-binding site at -71 to -52 is capable of binding NF-Y, USF and SREBP-1, and is required for the sterol response in conjunction with the co-activator NF-Y around -100. Surprisingly, both FIRE3 and ICE are also necessary for the response to retinoic acid that plays a role in development and is an essential component of the diet.
- Retinoic acid