Time dependent impact of copper oxide nanomaterials on the expression of genes associated with oxidative stress, metal binding, inflammation and mucus secretion in single and co-culture intestinal in vitro models

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Abstract

The potential for ingestion of copper oxide nanomaterials (CuO NMs) is increasing due to their increased exploitation. Investigation of changes in gene expression allows toxicity to be detected at an early stage of NM exposure and can enable investigation of the mechanism of toxicity. Here, undifferentiated Caco-2 cells, differentiated Caco-2 cells, Caco-2/HT29-MTX (mucus secreting) and Caco-2/Raji B (M cell model) co-cultures were exposed to CuO NMs and copper sulphate (CuSO4) in order to determine their impacts. Cellular responses were measured in terms of production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the gene expression of an antioxidant (haem oxygenase 1 (HMOX1)), the pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin 8 (IL8)), the metal binding (metallothionein 1A and 2A (MT1A and MT2A)) and the mucus secreting (mucin 2 (MUC2)), as well as HMOX-1 protein level. While CuSO4 induced ROS production in cells, no such effect was observed for CuO NMs. However, these particles did induce an increase in the level of HMOX-1 protein and upregulation of HMOX1, MT2A, IL8 and MUC2 genes in all cell models. In conclusion, the expression of HMOX1, IL8 and MT2A were responsive to CuO NMs at 4 to 12 h post exposure when investigating the toxicity of NMs using intestinal in vitro models. These findings can inform the selection of endpoints, timepoints and models when investigating NM toxicity to the intestine in vitro in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105161
JournalToxicology in Vitro
Volume74
Early online date9 Apr 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021

Keywords

  • Copper oxide nanomaterials
  • Haem oxygenase
  • Interleukin 8
  • Intestine
  • Metallothionein
  • Mucin 2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

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