Three-phase flow analysis of dense nonaqueous phase liquid infiltration in horizontally layered porous media

E. L. Wipfler, M. I J Van Dijke, S. E A T M Van Der Zee

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    We considered dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) infiltration into a water-unsaturated porous medium that consists of two horizontal layers, of which the top layer has a lower intrinsic permeability than the bottom layer. DNAPL is the intermediate-wetting fluid with respect to the wetting water and the nonwetting air. The layer interface forms a barrier to DNAPL flow, which causes the DNAPL to spread out horizontally just above the interface. An analytical approximation has been developed to estimate the DNAPL pressure and saturation and the horizontal extension of the DNAPL above the layer interface at steady state for low water saturations. The analytical approximation shows that the DNAPL infiltration is determined by five dimensionless numbers: the heterogeneity factor ?, the capillary pressure parameter ?, the gravity number Ng, the ratio of the capillary and gravity numbers Nc/Ng, and the critical DNAPL pressure Poc. Its predictions were compared with the results of a numerical three-phase flow simulator for a number of parameter combinations. For most of these combinations the analytical approximation predicts the DNAPL pressure and saturation profiles at the interface adequately. Using the analytical approximation, we carried out a sensitivity study with respect to the maximum horizontal extension of the plume. The extension of the plumes appears to be highly sensitive to variation of the dimensionless numbers Poc, ? and ?.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)W101011-W1010112
    JournalWater Resources Research
    Volume40
    Issue number10
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2004

    Fingerprint

    three phase flow
    nonaqueous phase liquid
    porous medium
    infiltration
    dimensionless number
    saturation
    wetting
    plume
    gravity
    analysis
    capillary pressure
    water
    simulator
    permeability

    Keywords

    • Heterogeneous porous media
    • Three-phase flow
    • Unsaturated zone

    Cite this

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    title = "Three-phase flow analysis of dense nonaqueous phase liquid infiltration in horizontally layered porous media",
    abstract = "We considered dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) infiltration into a water-unsaturated porous medium that consists of two horizontal layers, of which the top layer has a lower intrinsic permeability than the bottom layer. DNAPL is the intermediate-wetting fluid with respect to the wetting water and the nonwetting air. The layer interface forms a barrier to DNAPL flow, which causes the DNAPL to spread out horizontally just above the interface. An analytical approximation has been developed to estimate the DNAPL pressure and saturation and the horizontal extension of the DNAPL above the layer interface at steady state for low water saturations. The analytical approximation shows that the DNAPL infiltration is determined by five dimensionless numbers: the heterogeneity factor ?, the capillary pressure parameter ?, the gravity number Ng, the ratio of the capillary and gravity numbers Nc/Ng, and the critical DNAPL pressure Poc. Its predictions were compared with the results of a numerical three-phase flow simulator for a number of parameter combinations. For most of these combinations the analytical approximation predicts the DNAPL pressure and saturation profiles at the interface adequately. Using the analytical approximation, we carried out a sensitivity study with respect to the maximum horizontal extension of the plume. The extension of the plumes appears to be highly sensitive to variation of the dimensionless numbers Poc, ? and ?.",
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    Three-phase flow analysis of dense nonaqueous phase liquid infiltration in horizontally layered porous media. / Wipfler, E. L.; Van Dijke, M. I J; Van Der Zee, S. E A T M.

    In: Water Resources Research, Vol. 40, No. 10, 10.2004, p. W101011-W1010112.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    AU - Van Dijke, M. I J

    AU - Van Der Zee, S. E A T M

    PY - 2004/10

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    AB - We considered dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) infiltration into a water-unsaturated porous medium that consists of two horizontal layers, of which the top layer has a lower intrinsic permeability than the bottom layer. DNAPL is the intermediate-wetting fluid with respect to the wetting water and the nonwetting air. The layer interface forms a barrier to DNAPL flow, which causes the DNAPL to spread out horizontally just above the interface. An analytical approximation has been developed to estimate the DNAPL pressure and saturation and the horizontal extension of the DNAPL above the layer interface at steady state for low water saturations. The analytical approximation shows that the DNAPL infiltration is determined by five dimensionless numbers: the heterogeneity factor ?, the capillary pressure parameter ?, the gravity number Ng, the ratio of the capillary and gravity numbers Nc/Ng, and the critical DNAPL pressure Poc. Its predictions were compared with the results of a numerical three-phase flow simulator for a number of parameter combinations. For most of these combinations the analytical approximation predicts the DNAPL pressure and saturation profiles at the interface adequately. Using the analytical approximation, we carried out a sensitivity study with respect to the maximum horizontal extension of the plume. The extension of the plumes appears to be highly sensitive to variation of the dimensionless numbers Poc, ? and ?.

    KW - Heterogeneous porous media

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