Three-dimensional imaging of stationary and moving targets in turbid underwater environments using a single-photon detector array

Aurora Maccarone, Francesco Mattioli Della Rocca, Aongus McCarthy, Robert Henderson, Gerald S. Buller

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Abstract

Three-dimensional imaging in underwater environments was investigated using a picosecond resolution silicon single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector array fabricated in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Each detector in the 192 × 128 SPAD array had an individual time-to-digital converter allowing rapid, simultaneous acquisition of data for the entire array using the time-correlated single-photon counting approach. A picosecond pulsed laser diode source operating at a wavelength of 670 nm was used to illuminate the underwater scenes, emitting an average optical power up to 8 mW. Both stationary and moving targets were imaged under a variety of underwater scattering conditions. The acquisition of depth and intensity videos of moving targets was demonstrated in dark laboratory conditions through scattering water, equivalent to having up to 6.7 attenuation lengths between the transceiver and target. Data were analyzed using a pixel-wise approach, as well as an image processing algorithm based on a median filter and polynomial approximation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)28437-28456
Number of pages20
JournalOptics Express
Volume27
Issue number20
Early online date20 Sep 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Sep 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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