Three-dimensional imaging in underwater environments was investigated using a picosecond resolution silicon single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector array fabricated in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Each detector in the 192 × 128 SPAD array had an individual time-to-digital converter allowing rapid, simultaneous acquisition of data for the entire array using the time-correlated single-photon counting approach. A picosecond pulsed laser diode source operating at a wavelength of 670 nm was used to illuminate the underwater scenes, emitting an average optical power up to 8 mW. Both stationary and moving targets were imaged under a variety of underwater scattering conditions. The acquisition of depth and intensity videos of moving targets was demonstrated in dark laboratory conditions through scattering water, equivalent to having up to 6.7 attenuation lengths between the transceiver and target. Data were analyzed using a pixel-wise approach, as well as an image processing algorithm based on a median filter and polynomial approximation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics