Think outside the box: ‘Churn’ and the Environmental Impact of Office Fit-Out Retrofit

Gillian Frances Menzies, Theodora Tsolaki

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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Office building interiors undergo frequent replacement of Fixtures, Fittings and Furniture (FFF) as a result of organisational ‘Churn’ and the ‘Make Good’ process. This study examines the relative Recurring Embodied Energy (REE) magnitude of FFF retrofit installed in a UK notional office building over various lifespans. It also includes the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of four floor finishes in terms of their REE and related CO2e emissions. FFF was found to have a higher REE content than other elements and should be especially considered in the case of lower consumption office design. Some of the LCA CO2e results were found to vary significantly although the corresponding Embodied Energy values were similar. ‘Churn’ and the ‘Make Good’ process warrant further investigation, while it is suggested that building stakeholders be alerted to rethink material choices.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCIBSE Technical Symposium 2016
PublisherChartered Institution of Building Services Engineers
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2016


  • Churn
  • Retrofit
  • recurring embodied energy
  • LCA


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