Theorizing the path dependencies and hierarchical structure of the multidimensional risks in green building projects

Ibrahim Yahaya Wuni*, Zhikang Bao, Sitsofe Kwame Yevu, Mershack Opoku Tetteh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Green buildings are designed, constructed, and operated to reduce the consumption of energy, electricity, water, materials, and natural resources over the whole lifecycle. However, the added sustainability objectives expose green building (GB) projects to additional uncertainties and unpredictable risks. This paper conducted a systematic literature review to identify, categorize, and theorize the chain reactions of various risks in GB projects. Results revealed ninety-six (96) critical risk factors (CRFs) for GB projects. The study derived nine (9) broad taxonomies of the CRFs, including financial, material and equipment, design, technical, stakeholder, management, environmental, legal, and regulatory risks. These taxonomies parade different levels of criticalities based on mean citation scores. The five most persistent taxonomies include design, regulatory, material and equipment, financial, and technical risks. A Pareto analysis revealed sixty (60) vital CRFs for green building projects. The study developed a hierarchical structural model explaining how the various risks influence each other in GB projects. Therefore, this study not only provides a comprehensive list of CRFs, as frame of reference, for researchers and practitioners, but also can inform more efficient resource allocation and introduce novel perspectives for managerial practices in GB projects.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106069
JournalJournal of Building Engineering
Early online date10 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2023


  • Critical risk factors
  • Green building
  • Green construction
  • Risks
  • Sustainable construction
  • Systematic literature review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Architecture
  • Building and Construction
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Mechanics of Materials


Dive into the research topics of 'Theorizing the path dependencies and hierarchical structure of the multidimensional risks in green building projects'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this