The TRAMS: The Team-Referent Attributions Measure in Sport

Pete Coffee*, Iain Greenlees, Mark S. Allen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: To provide initial evidence for the construct, concurrent, and predictive validity of the Team-Referent Attributions Measure in Sport (the TRAMS).

Design: Cross-sectional in Studies 1 and 2, and multiple time points in Study 3.

Method: Study 1 required participants (N=500) to complete the TRAMS for their "least successful" and "most successful" performances in the preceding three months. In Study 2, after performance, participants (N=515) completed the TRAMS and the Causal Dimension Scale for Teams (CDS-T; Greenlees etal., 2005). Study 3 required participants (N=165) to complete a measure of pre-competition collective-efficacy prior to performance (Day 1, Time 1), the TRAMS following performance (Day 1, Time 2), and a measure of subsequent collective-efficacy prior to subsequent performance (Day 7-9, Time 3).

Results: Study 1 supported the factor structure of the TRAMS across least successful and most successful conditions. Study 2 provided further support for the factor structure of the TRAMS, together with evidence of concurrent validity with subscales of the CDS-T. Study 3 revealed, following team defeat, interactions between controllability and generalisability dimensions: Controllability had a significant effect upon subsequent collective-efficacy when causes of team defeat were also perceived to generalise across situations and/or across teams. Following team victory, stable attributions were positively associated with subsequent collective-efficacy.

Conclusions: This article provides initial evidence for the validity of the TRAMS and demonstrates for team-referent attributions the theoretical advantages of examining a broader conceptualisation of generalisability attributions and interactive effects of attributions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)150-159
Number of pages10
JournalPsychology of Sport and Exercise
Issue numberPart 3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2015


  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Construct validity
  • Group dynamics
  • Multilevel analyses
  • Sport psychology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology


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