The PASS-Q: The perceived available support in sport questionnaire

Paul Freeman*, Pete Coffee, Tim Rees

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This article provides initial evidence for the construct validity of the Perceived Available Support in Sport Questionnaire (PASS-Q), which assesses emotional, esteem, informational, and tangible support. In Study 1, confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence for a four-dimension factor structure. Correlations supported hypothesized relationships between the PASS-Q dimensions and the Social Support Survey questions (Richman, Rosenfeld, & Hardy, 1993). In Study 2, the four-dimension factor structure was supported in an independent sample. Further, higher levels of perceived available emotional, esteem, informational, and tangible support were associated with higher levels of self-confidence and lower levels of burnout. Researchers are encouraged to use the PASS-Q to examine the effects of perceived available support in sport contexts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)54-74
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Volume33
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2011

Keywords

  • Burnout
  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Self-confidence
  • Social support
  • Sport psychology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology

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