## Abstract

We give a constructive proof, to all orders, that each member of the non-commutative potential Korteweg–de Vries hierarchy is a Fredholm Grassmannian flow and is therefore linearisable. Indeed we prove this for any linear combination of fields from this hierarchy. That each member of the hierarchy is linearisable, and integrable in this sense, means that the time evolving solution can be generated from the solution to the corresponding linear dispersion equation in the hierarchy, combined with solving an associated linear Fredholm equation representing the Marchenko equation. Further, we show that within the class of polynomial partial differential fields, at every order, each member of the non-commutative potential Korteweg–de Vries hierarchy is unique. Indeed, we prove to all orders, that each such member matches the non-commutative Lax hierarchy field, which is therefore a polynomial partial differential field. We achieve this by constructing the abstract combinatorial algebra that underlies the non-commutative potential Korteweg–de Vries hierarchy. This algebra is the non-commutative polynomial algebra over the real line generated by the set of all compositions endowed with the Pöppe product. This product is the abstract representation of the product rule for Hankel operators pioneered by Ch. Pöppe for integrable equations such as the Sine–Gordon and Korteweg–de Vries equations. Integrability of the hierarchy members translates, in the combinatorial algebra, to proving the existence of a ‘Pöppe polynomial’ expansion for basic compositions in terms of ‘linear signature expansions’. Proving the existence of such Pöppe polynomial expansions boils down to solving a linear algebraic problem for the expansion coefficients, which we solve constructively to all orders.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 133228 |

Journal | Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena |

Volume | 434 |

Early online date | 12 Mar 2022 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - Jun 2022 |

## Keywords

- Combinatorial Pöppe algebra
- Grassmannian flow
- KdV hierarchy

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Mathematical Physics
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Applied Mathematics