Mineralogical data for xenoliths occurring as inclusions in the fissure erupted alkali basalts and the basanitic tuffs of Anjouan reveal three xenolith suites: 1) the lherzolites, 2) the dunites and wehrlites, 3) the gabbros and syenites. The " dunite-wehrlite " suite and the gabbro suite are shown to represent high-level cumulate sequences resulting from ankaramitic fractionation of the hy-normative shield-building lavas and cotecictic fractionation of the alkali basalt lavas respectively, whilst the syenitic xenoliths represent evolved high-level intrusions. Mineralogical and rare earth element (REE) data indicate that the most likely origin for the spinel lherzolite xenoliths is by extraction of a basaltic phase from spinel peridotite, leaving a light REE-poor spinel lherzolite residuum. REE models, constructed using model peridotite assemblages, imply that the hy-normative basalt lavas may be derived by partial melting of spinel peridotite at pressures of <20-25 kb leaving a residual lherzolite, and that the alkali basalt and basanite melts are formed by small degrees of melting of a garnet-peridotite source at pressures of >20-25 kb. The spinel lherzolite source for the hy-normative basalts has been accidentally sampled during explosive eruption of the alkali basalt and basanite magmas.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geochemistry and Petrology