In this study, we examined the effects of immediate and reflective attributions upon subsequent self-efficacy. At Time 1 (Day 1), 117 participants (mean age 25.8 years, s = 8. 5) completed a measure of attributions after performance (immediate attributions). At Time 2 (Day 4), the participants completed the same measure of attributions (reflective attributions). At Time 3 (Day 7, 8 or 9), they completed a measure of self-efficacy relating to an up-coming performance. Immediately after more successful performances, global attributions were associated with higher subsequent self-efficacy; upon reflection, stable, global, and/or personal attributions were associated with higher subsequent self-efficacy. Immediately after and upon reflection of less successful performances, controllable attributions were associated with higher subsequent self-efficacy; an interaction for controllability and stability demonstrated that when causes are perceived as likely to recur, greater controllability is associated with higher subsequent self-efficacy. Results suggest that following more successful performances, analysis of reflective assessments of attributions may help to further understanding of the relationships between attributions and outcomes such as self-efficacy. This study serves as a stimulus for future research to examine relationships between attributions assessed across time and outcomes such as self-efficacy, as well as to examine interactions among attribution dimensions.
- Moderated hierarchical regression
- Sport psychology
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation