The LOFAR Two Meter Sky Survey: Deep Fields Data Release 1: I. Direction-dependent calibration and imaging

C. Tasse*, T. Shimwell, M. J. Hardcastle, S. P. O'Sullivan, R. van Weeren, P. N. Best, L. Bester, B. Hugo, O. Smirnov, J. Sabater, G. Calistro-Rivera, F. de Gasperin, L. K. Morabito, H. Röttgering, W. L. Williams, M. Bonato, M. Bondi, A. Botteon, M. Brüggen, G. BrunettiK. T. Chyay, M. A. Garrett, G. Gürkan, M. J. Jarvis, R. Kondapally, S. Mandal, I. Prandoni, A. Repetti, E. Retana-Montenegro, D. J. Schwarz, A. Shulevski, Y. Wiaux

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

73 Citations (Scopus)
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The Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) is an ideal instrument to conduct deep extragalactic surveys. It has a large field of view and is sensitive to large-scale and compact emission. It is, however, very challenging to synthesize thermal noise limited maps at full resolution, mainly because of the complexity of the low-frequency sky and the direction dependent effects (phased array beams and ionosphere). In this first paper of a series, we present a new calibration and imaging pipeline that aims at producing high fidelity, high dynamic range images with LOFAR High Band Antenna data, while being computationally efficient and robust against the absorption of unmodeled radio emission. We apply this calibration and imaging strategy to synthesize deep images of the Boötes and Lockman Hole fields at ~150 MHz, totaling ~80 and ~100 h of integration, respectively, and reaching unprecedented noise levels at these low frequencies of â 30 and â 23 μJy beam-1 in the inner ~3 deg2. This approach is also being used to reduce theâ» LOTSS-wide data for the second data release.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Early online date7 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021


  • Galaxies: Active
  • Galaxies: starburst
  • Radio continuum: galaxies
  • Surveys
  • Techniques: image processing
  • Techniques: interferometric

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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