The impact of ‘super clubs’ on uncertainty of outcome in the UEFA women’s champions league

Maurizio Valenti*, Nicolas Scelles, Stephen Morrow

*Corresponding author for this work

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In the last 15 years, an increasing number of men’s football clubs based in the men’s leagues generating the highest revenue (i.e. Big 5) have started to integrate women’s section into their structure. The emergence of these “super clubs” threatens the long-established financial and sporting inequalities found in European men’s football being replicated in the women’s game. This study examines the measures of outcome uncertainty in the UEFA Women’s Champions League (UWCL) over the 2008–2019 period and how this has been influenced by the presence of “super clubs”. The results indicate a growing trend towards domination by “super clubs”, with outcome uncertainty significantly declining for matches where “super clubs” face other clubs. As indicated in previous research, uncertainty of outcome is necessary in women’s football to maximize spectators’ interest. Therefore, the authors recommend that UEFA should take actions to ensure competitive balance in the UWCL.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)509-519
Number of pages11
JournalSoccer and Society
Issue number4
Early online date23 Mar 2023
Publication statusPublished - 19 May 2023


  • Women's football
  • UEFA Champions' League
  • uncertainty of outcome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance(all)


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