This Special Publication contains contributions for two meetings held to explore the links between geoscience and engineering in rivers and reservoirs (surface and subsurface). The first meeting was held in Brazil and, as a result, the volume contains many contributions from Brazil. The second was held in Edinburgh, and produced contributions from modern rivers in the USA, China, India and Scotland. The geological record from Carboniferous to Recent is represented. A range of outcrop techniques are presented along with statistical techniques used to identify patterns in the time series and spatial sense. The book is intended to cover the cross-disciplinary interest in rivers and their sediments, and will interest geologists, geomorphologists, civil, geotechnical and petroleum engineers, and government agencies. Some of the papers collected here demonstrate longer term impacts of human activity on rivers and how these might change the future geological record and, more importantly in the short term, impact on the UN Global Sustainability Goals.