The FluidFlower Validation Benchmark Study for the Storage of CO2

Bernd Flemisch*, Jan M. Nordbotten, Martin Fernø, Ruben Juanes, Jakub W. Both, Holger Class, Mojdeh Delshad, Florian Doster, Jonathan Ennis-King, Jacques Franc, Sebastian Geiger, Dennis Gläser, Christopher Green, James Gunning, Hadi Hajibeygi, Samuel J. Jackson, Mohamad Jammoul, Satish Karra, Jiawei Li, Stephan K. MatthäiTerry Miller, Qi Shao, Catherine Spurin, Philip Stauffer, Hamdi Tchelepi, Xiaoming Tian, Hari Viswanathan, Denis Voskov, Yuhang Wang, Michiel Wapperom, Mary F. Wheeler, Andrew Wilkins, Abd Allah A. Youssef, Ziliang Zhang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
26 Downloads (Pure)


Successful deployment of geological carbon storage (GCS) requires an extensive use of reservoir simulators for screening, ranking and optimization of storage sites. However, the time scales of GCS are such that no sufficient long-term data is available yet to validate the simulators against. As a consequence, there is currently no solid basis for assessing the quality with which the dynamics of large-scale GCS operations can be forecasted. To meet this knowledge gap, we have conducted a major GCS validation benchmark study. To achieve reasonable time scales, a laboratory-size geological storage formation was constructed (the “FluidFlower”), forming the basis for both the experimental and computational work. A validation experiment consisting of repeated GCS operations was conducted in the FluidFlower, providing what we define as the true physical dynamics for this system. Nine different research groups from around the world provided forecasts, both individually and collaboratively, based on a detailed physical and petrophysical characterization of the FluidFlower sands. The major contribution of this paper is a report and discussion of the results of the validation benchmark study, complemented by a description of the benchmarking process and the participating computational models. The forecasts from the participating groups are compared to each other and to the experimental data by means of various indicative qualitative and quantitative measures. By this, we provide a detailed assessment of the capabilities of reservoir simulators and their users to capture both the injection and post-injection dynamics of the GCS operations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)865-912
Number of pages48
JournalTransport in Porous Media
Issue number5
Early online date18 Aug 2023
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • Geological carbon storage
  • Model intercomparison
  • Validation benchmark
  • Validation experiment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • General Chemical Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'The FluidFlower Validation Benchmark Study for the Storage of CO2'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this