The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to provide an updated analysis, including the use of more robust methods, on the effects of exercise on bone mineral density in men. Randomised Control Trials of > 24 weeks and published in English up to 01/05/20 were retrieved from 3 electronic databases, cross-referencing, and expert review. The primary outcome measures were changes in FN, LS, and lower limb BMD Standardised effect sizes were calculated from each study and pooled using the inverse heterogeneity model. A statistically significant benefit of exercise was observed on FN BMD [g = 0.21 (0.03, 0.40), Z = 2.23 p = 0.03], with no observed statistically significant benefit of exercise on LS BMD [g = 0.10 (− 0.07, 0.26), Z = 1.15 p = 0.25]. This analysis provided additional evidence to recommend ground- and/or joint-reaction force exercises for improving or maintaining FN, but not LS BMD. Additional well-designed RCTs are unlikely to alter this evidence, although interventions that include activities that directly load the lumbar spine are needed to ensure this is not a potential method of improving LS BMD.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine