The CSGU: A measure of controllability, stability, globality, and universality attributions

Pete Coffee*, Tim Rees

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


This article reports initial evidence of construct validity for a four-factor measure of attributions assessing the dimensions of controllability, stability, globality, and universality (the CSGU). In Study 1, using confirmatory factor analysis, factors were confirmed across least successful and most successful conditions. In Study 2, following less successful performances, correlations supported hypothesized relationships between subscales of the CSGU and subscales of the CDSII (McAuley, Duncan, & Russell, 1992). In Study 3, following less successful performances, moderated hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that individuals have higher subsequent self-efficacy when they perceive causes of performance as controllable, and/or specific, and/or universal. An interaction for controllability and stability demonstrated that, if causes are perceived as likely to recur, it is important to perceive that causes are controllable. Researchers are encouraged to use the CSGU to examine main and interactive effects of controllability and generalizability attributions upon outcomes such as self-efficacy, emotions, and performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)611-641
Number of pages31
JournalJournal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2008


  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Generalizability
  • Self-efficacy
  • Sport psychology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology


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