The Coronavirus Anxiety Scale: Cross-National Measurement Invariance and Convergent Validity Evidence

Veljko Jovanović, Maksim Rudnev, Mohamed Abdelrahman, Nor Ba’yah Abdul Kadir, Damilola Fisayo Adebayo, Plamen Akaliyski, Rana Alaseel, Yousuf Abdulqader Alkamali, Luz Marina Alonso Palacio, Azzam Amin, Andrii Andres, Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam, John Jamir Benzon R. Aruta, Hrant M. Avanesyan, Norzihan Ayub, Maria Bacikova-Sleskova, Raushan Baikanova, Batoul Bakkar, Sunčica Bartoluci, David BenitezIvanna Bodnar, Aidos Bolatov, Judyta Borchet, Ksenija Bosnar, Yunier Broche-Pérez, Carmen Buzea, Rosalinda Cassibba, Maria del Pilar Grazioso, Sandesh Dhakal, Radosveta Dimitrova, Alejandra Dominguez, Cong Doanh Duong, Luciana Dutra Thome, Arune Joao Estavela, Emmanuel Abiodun Fayankinnu, Nelli Ferenczi, Regina Fernández-Morales, Maria-Therese Friehs, Jorge Gaete, Wassim Gharz Edine, Shahar Gindi, Rubia Carla Formighieri Giordani, Biljana Gjoneska, Juan Carlos Godoy, Camellia Doncheva Hancheva, Given Hapunda, Shogo Hihara, Md. Saiful Islam, Anna Janovská, Nino Javakhishvili, Russell Sarwar Kabir, Amir Kabunga, Arzu Karakulak, Johannes Alfons Karl, Darko Katović, Zhumaly Kauyzbay, Maria Kaźmierczak, Richa Khanna, Meetu Khosla, Peter Kisaakye, Martina Klicperova-Baker, Richman Kokera, Ana Kozina, Steven E. Krauss, Rodrigo Landabur, Katharina Lefringhausen, Aleksandra Lewandowska-Walter, Yun-Hsia Liang, Danny Lizarzaburu-Aguinaga, Lorena Cecilia López Steinmetz, Ana Makashvili, Sadia Malik, Denisse Manrique-Millones, Marta Martín-Carbonell, Maria Angela Mattar Yunes, Breeda McGrath, Enkeleint A. Mechili, Marinés Mejía Alvarez, Samson Mhizha, Justyna Michałek-Kwiecień, Sushanta Kumar Mishra, Mahdi Mohammadi, Fatema Mohsen, Rodrigo Moreta-Herrera, Maria D. Muradyan, Pasquale Musso, Andrej Naterer, Arash Nemat, Felix Neto, Joana Neto, Hassan Okati-Aliabad, Carlos Iván Orellana, Ligia Orellana, Joonha Park, Iuliia Pavlova, Eddy Alfonso Peralta, Petro Petrytsa, Rasa Pilkauskaite Valickiene, Saša Pišot, Iva Poláčková Šolcová, Franjo Prot, Gordana Ristevska Dimitrovska, Rita M. Rivera, Benedicta Prihatin Dwi Riyanti, Mohd Saiful Husain Saiful, Adil Samekin, Telman Seisembekov, Danielius Serapinas, Zahra Sharafi, Prerna Sharma, Shanu Shukla, Fabiola Silletti, Katarzyna Skrzypińska, Vanessa Smith-Castro, Olga Solomontos-Kountouri, Adrian Stanciu, Delia Ştefenel, Maria Stogianni, Jaimee Stuart, Laura Francisca Sudarnoto, Mst Sadia Sultana, Dijana Sulejmanović, Angela Oktavia Suryani, Ergyul Tair, Lucy Tavitian-Elmadjian, Fitim Uka, Guilherme Welter Wendt, Pei-Jung Yang, Ebrar Yıldırım, Yue Yu

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Abstract

Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) is a widely used measure that captures somatic symptoms of coronavirus-related anxiety. In a large-scale collaboration spanning 60 countries (Ntotal = 21,513), we examined the CAS’s measurement invariance and assessed the convergent validity of CAS scores in relation to the fear of COVID-19 (FCV-19S) and the satisfaction with life (SWLS-3) scales. We utilized both conventional exact invariance tests and alignment procedures, with results revealing that the single-factor model fit the data well in almost all countries. Partial scalar invariance was supported in a subset of 56 countries. To ensure the robustness of results, given the unbalanced samples, we employed resampling techniques both with and without replacement and found the results were more stable in larger samples. The alignment procedure demonstrated a high degree of measurement invariance with 9% of the parameters exhibiting noninvariance. We also conducted simulations of alignment using the parameters estimated in the current model. Findings demonstrated reliability of the means but indicated challenges in estimating the latent variances. Strong positive correlations between CAS and FCV-19S estimated with all three different approaches were found in most countries. Correlations of CAS and SWLS-3 were weak and negative, but significantly differed from zero in several countries. Overall, the study provided support for the measurement invariance of the CAS and offered evidence of its convergent validity while also highlighting issues with variance estimation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14-29
Number of pages16
JournalPsychological Assessment
Volume36
Issue number1
Early online date27 Nov 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024

Keywords

  • alignment
  • coronavirus anxiety
  • culture
  • measurement invariance
  • validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Clinical Psychology

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