The complete mitochondrial genome of Flustrellidra hispida and the phylogenetic position of Bryozoa among the Metazoa

Andrea Waeschenbach*, Maximilian J Telford, Joanne S Porter, D Timothy J Littlewood

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature reviewpeer-review

    60 Citations (Scopus)


    The complete mitochondrial genome of Flustrellidra hispida (Bryozoa, Ctenostomata, Flustrellidridae) was sequenced using a transposon-mediated approach. All but one of the 36 genes were identified (trnS2). The genome is 13,026 bp long, being one of the smallest metazoan mitochondrial genomes sequenced to date with a unique gene order when compared to other Metazoa. The genome has an overall AT richness of 59.4%. We found seven regions of overlaps between tRNAs and protein-coding genes ranging from 2 to 11nt, and seven regions of overlap between tRNAs, ranging from 1 to 8 nt, resulting in a total number of 46 overlapping nucleotides. Genes nad4, coY2, atp8, and nad3 are terminated by the abbreviated stop codon T and cytb is suggested to terminate on (ACT)AA; we postulate that mRNA editing is required to remove AC for TAA to be functional in terminating translation. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide and amino acid data place Flustrellidra in the Lophotrochozoa. DNA for this study originated from two populations resulting in a contig consisting of multiple haplotypes. Twenty-seven SNP sites were detected, the majority occurring in cox1 and nad5. With cox1 already established as a marker in bryozoan studies, we advocate the further testing of nad5. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)195-207
    Number of pages13
    JournalMolecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - Jul 2006


    • nucleotide sequence
    • protostomes
    • complete DNA sequence
    • inferences
    • brachiopods
    • bryozoa
    • Flustrellidra hispida
    • 18S ribosomal DNA
    • organisation
    • gene order
    • metazoa
    • phylogenetics
    • molecular phylogeny
    • mitochondrial genome
    • animal phylogeny


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