The Cadiz Contourite Channel: Sandy contourites, bedforms and dynamic current interaction

Dorrik Stow, F.J. Hernandez-Molina, Estefanía Llave, M. Bruno, M. Garcia, V. Diaz del Rio, L. Somoza, Rachel Brackenridge

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Abstract

The Cadiz Contourite Channel is the largest and most prominent contourite channel in the middle slope of the Gulf of Cadiz, and is known to channelise the southern branch of the Lower Core of Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) as it flows westwards from the Gibraltar Gateway. The channel lies in water depth between 650 and 1500 m, is 150 km long, 2–12 km wide, up to 120 m deep, and broadly s-shaped in plan view. It has several associated subparallel marginal channels and shorter spillover channel segments. Its geometry is controlled by the interaction of a strong bottom current with the seafloor morphology, affected by neotectonic deformation and diapiric intrusion. Bottom photographs and dredge hauls reveal a channel floor shaped by high-energy flow, in places with bare rock, boulders and gravel, and elsewhere covered with sandy contourites. The rocky substrate and derived clasts are formed of authigenic iron-rich carbonates, testifying the high degree of fluid escape from adjacent diapiric ridges and mud volcanoes. The sandy substrate shows a wide range of current-induced bedforms including small, straight-crested ripples, large sinuous sand waves and dunes (wavelength 3.5–5 m, height 0.3–0.9 m), weak surface lineation on sands, and aligned gravel stringers and deep erosive scours around large boulders. Bedform orientation indicates flows directed to the south/south-west (main channel) and west (spillover channel), which can be related to MOW bottom currents, and current velocities that vary between about 0.2 and 0.8 m s- 1, even in the same channel location. However, current vane orientation was clearly responding, at least in part, to tidal effects and periodicity in the Gulf of Cadiz at the time the photographs were taken. Maximum current velocities are achieved by a combination of barotropic and internal tides (probably generated at the continental slope) that reinforce the normal MOW flow. In addition, meteorologically-induced internal waves with periods shorter than tidal ones may exert an even greater influence on current intensity, especially when they occur at times of sudden changes of meteorological forcing. This effect further influences MOW variability. In all cases, the funnelling effect of the Cadiz Channel amplifies tidal or meteorologically-induced bottom currents.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)99-114
Number of pages16
JournalMarine Geology
Volume343
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2013

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Stow, D., Hernandez-Molina, F. J., Llave, E., Bruno, M., Garcia, M., Diaz del Rio, V., Somoza, L., & Brackenridge, R. (2013). The Cadiz Contourite Channel: Sandy contourites, bedforms and dynamic current interaction. Marine Geology, 343, 99-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2013.06.013