The ATHENA framework: Analysis and design of a strategic hydrogen refuelling infrastructure

Christa Searle*, Kit Daniel Searle, Senlei Wang, Philip Greening

*Corresponding author for this work

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With the pressured timescale in determining effective and viable net zero solutions within the transport sector, it is important to understand the extent of implementing a new refuelling infrastructure for alternative fuel, such as hydrogen. The proposed ATHENA framework entails three components which encapsulates the demand data analysis, an optimisation model in determining the minimal cost hydrogen refuelling infrastructure design, and an agent-based model simulating the operational system. As a case study, the ATHENA framework is applied to Northern England focusing on the design of a hydrogen refuelling infrastructure for heavy goods vehicles. Analysis is performed in calibrating parameters and investigating different scenarios within the optimisation and agent-based simulation models. For this case study, the system optimality is limited by the feasible number of tube trailer deliveries per day which suggests an opportunity for alternative delivery methods.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)767-781
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Issue numberPart B
Early online date4 May 2023
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2024


  • Agent-based simulation modelling
  • Data analysis
  • Hydrogen refuelling infrastructure
  • Optimisation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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