This paper investigates the economic impact of a 5% improvement in UK household energy efficiency, focussing specifically on total energy rebound effects. The impact is measured through simulations using models that have increasing degrees of endogeneity but are calibrated on a common data set, moving from a basic partial equilibrium approach to a fully specified general equilibrium treatment. The size of the rebound effect is shown to depend on changes in household income, aggregate economic activity and relative prices that can only be captured through a general equilibrium model.
Lecca, P., Mcgregor, P. G., Swales, J. K., & Turner, K. (2014). The added value from a general equilibrium analysis of increased efficiency in household energy use. Ecological Economics, 100, 51-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.01.008