Technological and economic analysis of electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil: A global perspective and its application in Indian scenario

J. Akansha, Somil Thakur, M Sai Chaithanya, Bhaskar Sen Gupta, Sovik Das, Bhaskar Das, N. Rajasekar, K. Priya

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
71 Downloads (Pure)


Globally million hectares of land annually is getting contaminated by heavy metalloids like As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Se, with current concentrations in soil above geo-baseline or regulatory standards. The heavy metals are highly toxic, mobile, and persistent and hence require immediate and effective mitigation. There are many available remediation techniques like surface capping, encapsulation, landfilling, soil flushing, soil washing, electrokinetic extraction, stabilization, solidification, vitrification, phytoremediation, and bioremediation which have been evolved to clean up heavy metal-contaminated sites. Nevertheless, all of the technologies have some applicability and limitations making the soil remediation initiative unsustainable. Among the available technologies, electrokinetic remediation (EKR) has been comparatively recognized to mitigate contaminated sites via both in-situ and ex-situ approaches due to its efficiency, suitability for use in low permeability soil, and requirement of low potential gradient. The work critically analyzes the EKR concerning techno, economic, and sustainability aspect for evaluating its application on various substrates and environmental conditions. The current soil contamination status in India is presented and the application of EKR for the heavy metal remediation from soil has been evaluated. The present work summaries a comprehensive and exhaustive review on EKR technology proving its effectiveness for a country like India where the huge amount of waste generated could not be treated due to lack of infrastructure, technology, and economic constraints.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere24293
Issue number2
Early online date11 Jan 2024
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jan 2024


  • Electrokinetic treatment
  • Heavy metals
  • Hybrid- electrokinetic remediation
  • Soil contamination
  • Soil remediation techniques

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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