Synthesis of Integrated Flower Waste Biorefinery: Multi-Objective Optimisation with Economic and Environmental Consideration

Emily Hau Yan Chong, Viknesh Andiappan, Lik Yin Ng, Parimala Shivaprasad, Denny K. S. Ng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
44 Downloads (Pure)


The improper disposal of flower waste from cultural activities is one of the main challenges in certain countries such as India. If the flower waste is not managed properly, it causes a number of environmental issues. Therefore, various technologies have been developed to transform flower waste into value-added products. To integrate multiple technologies holistically to maximise the energy and material recovery, an integrated flower-waste biorefinery is required. Since there are a wide range of technologies available that can convert the waste into multiple products, there is a need to develop a systematic approach to evaluate all the technologies. This research proposes a systematic approach to synthesise an integrated flower-waste biorefinery based on different optimisation objectives, e.g., maximum economic performance and minimum environmental impact. Due to the conflicting nature between the two objectives, a fuzzy optimisation approach has been adapted to synthesise a sustainable integrated flower-waste biorefinery that satisfies both objectives at once. The efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated through a case study in India based on the optimised results with fuzzy optimisation—a synthesised flower-waste integrated biorefinery with economy performance of $400,932 and carbon emission of 46,209 kg CO2/h.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2240
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2022


  • flower waste
  • integrated biorefinery
  • mathematical optimisation
  • value-added product
  • waste valorisation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology


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