Synthesis and structural characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-containing phenol formaldehyde resites

O Sirkecioglu, John M Andresen, C McRae, Colin E Snape

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Abstract

To probe the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the carbonization, gasification, and liquefaction of coals and other solid fuels, nonsoftening phenol-formaldehyde (PF) co-resites are ideal since they facilitate the incorporation of individual PAHs into a highly crosslinked matrix. A series of PAH and diphenylalkane-containing phenolic co-resites have been prepared using phenol with, as the second component, 2-naphthol, 4-hydroxy diphenylmethane, 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenylethane, 1-(4-hydroxybenzyl)naphthalene, 9-(4-hydroxybenzyl) anthracene, and 9-(4-hydroxybenzyl) phenanthrene. A mole ratio of 3:1 (phenol:second phenolic constituent) was adopted to ensure that a reasonably high degree of crosslinking was achieved. The virtually complete elimination of ether and methylol functions from the resoles by curing at 200 degrees C was monitored by solid-state C-13-NMR. The resites were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The volatile-matter contents of the PAH-containing resites were all higher than that of the normal resite. The carbonization of the 9-(4-hydroxybenzyl) anthracene-containing resite in a fluidized-bed reactor is used to illustrate the potential applications of the PAH-containing resites in fuel science. (C) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)663-671
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Applied Polymer Science
Volume66
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1998

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