Synthesis and optimisation of biomass-based tri-generation systems with reliability aspects

Viknesh Andiappan, Raymond R. Tan, Kathleen B. Aviso, Denny K. S. Ng*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


Tri-generation systems are utility systems which produce heat, power and cooling simultaneously. Use of tri-generation systems in industrial sites reduces the importation of power and improves local power reliability; at the same time, their inherently higher efficiency also reduces environmental impacts. However, interdependencies among process units in tri-generation plants can lead to vulnerability to cascading failures. Process units may become non-functional during the course of operations as a result of planned or unplanned stoppages. This issue is normally handled by installing additional capacity to the process units based on heuristics. However, such heuristics may not be able to address complex decisions pertaining to the installation of multiple units to provide redundancy, and may result in excessive capital and/or maintenance costs. In this work, a systematic approach for the grassroots design of a reliable BTS (biomass-based tri-generation system) considering equipment redundancy is presented. Chance-constrained programming and k-out-of-. m system modelling are used to develop a multi-period optimisation model for a generic BTS. Two case studies are then solved to illustrate this modelling approach.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)803-818
Number of pages16
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2015


  • Palm-based biomass
  • Redundancy allocation
  • Reliability
  • Tri-generation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Pollution
  • General Energy
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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