Howard Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The two-level grammar notation is a powerful tool for specifying the syntax, static semantics and even dynamic semantics of programming languages. However, it can also be a very difficult notation to follow. For this reason an approach to writing two-level grammars is advocated which explicitly indicates the 'direction of propagation' of metanotions. This suggests the requirement that the direction of propagation of each metanotion within a given hypernotion should be consistent and enables one to test a two-level grammar specification for circularity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)250-256
Number of pages7
JournalComputer Journal
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1985

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