Somatic mutations in the Jak2 protein, such as V617F, cause aberrant Jak/STAT signaling and can lead to the development of myeloproliferative neoplasms. This discovery has led to the search for small molecule inhibitors that target Jak2. Using structure-based virtual screening, our group recently identified a novel small molecule inhibitor of Jak2 named G6. Here, we identified a structure-function correlation of this compound. Specifically, five derivative compounds of G6 having structural similarity to the original lead compound were obtained and analyzed for their ability to (i) inhibit Jak2-V617F-mediated cell growth, (ii) inhibit the levels of phospho-Jak2, phospho-STAT3, and phospho-STAT5; (iii) induce apoptosis in human erythroleukemia cells; and (iv) suppress pathologic cell growth of Jak2-V617F-expressing human bone marrow cells ex vivo. Additionally, we computationally examined the interactions of these compounds with the ATP-binding pocket of the Jak2 kinase domain. We found that the stilbenoid core-containing derivatives of G6 significantly inhibited Jak2-V617F-mediated cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. They also inhibited phosphorylation of Jak2, STAT3, and STAT5 proteins within cells, resulting in higher levels of apoptosis via the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Finally, the stilbenoid derivatives inhibited the pathologic growth of Jak2-V617F-expressing human bone marrow cells ex vivo. Collectively, our data demonstrate that G6 has a stilbenoid core that is indispensable for maintaining its Jak2 inhibitory potential. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.