Standard Pushout Tests and Design Rules for a Bolted-Welded Hybrid Demountable Shear Connector

Jun He, Ahmed S. H. Suwaed, George Vasdravellis*, Sihao Wang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


A bolted-welded hybrid demountable shear connector for use in deconstructable steel-concrete composite buildings and bridges was proposed. The hybrid connector consisted of a partially threaded stud, which was welded on the flange of a steel section, and a machined steel tube with compatible geometry, which was bolted on the stud. Four standard pushout tests according to Eurocode 4 were carried out to assess the shear performance of the hybrid connector. The experimental results show that the initial stiffness, shear resistance, and slip capacity of the proposed connector were higher than those of traditional welded studs. The hybrid connector was a ductile connector, according to Eurocode 4, with slip capacity higher than 6 mm. A nonlinear finite-element model was calibrated against the pushout tests and found capable of reproducing the experimental behavior with good agreement. The verified finite-element model was then used to conduct a series of parametric studies in order to assess the effect of infilled grout, concrete slab strength, stud diameter, stud tensile strength, tube thickness, and tube tensile strength on the shear resistance and stiffness of the hybrid connector. Based on the experimental and numerical results, a design equation is proposed for the prediction of the shear resistance of the novel connector.

Original languageEnglish
Article number04022097
JournalJournal of Structural Engineering
Issue number8
Early online date31 May 2022
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022


  • Demountable shear connector
  • Pushout test
  • Shear resistance
  • Slip capacity
  • Steel-concrete composite structure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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