Stability of Li-LSX zeolite in the catalytic pyrolysis of non-treated and acid pre-treated Isochrysis sp. Microalgae

Nur Adilah Abd Rahman, Javier Fermoso, Aimaro Sanna

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
65 Downloads (Pure)


This paper investigates the use of Li-LSX-zeolite catalyst over three regeneration cycles in presence of non-treated and acid pre-treated Isochrysis sp. microalgae. The spent and regenerated catalysts were characterised by surface analysis, elemental analysis (EA), SEM-EDS, and XRD to correlate their properties with the bio-oil yield and quality. The acid pre-treatment removed alkali metals, reducing gas yield in favour of bio-oil, but, at the same time, led to catalyst deactivation by fouling. Differently, the non-treated microalgae resulted in a bio-oil enriched in C and H and depleted in O, compared to the pre-treated ones, denoting higher deoxygenation activity. After 3 pyrolysis/regeneration cycles, the analyses suggest that there are no major changes on catalyst using non-treated microalgae. Regeneration at 700 °C has been shown to be able to remove most of the coke without damaging the Li-LSX zeolite structure. In summary, Li-LSX zeolite was effective in maintaining deoxygenation activity over three cycles in the pyrolysis of non-treated Isochrysis microalgae, while the algae pre-treatment with sulphuric acid was detrimental on the catalyst activity.
Original languageEnglish
Article number959
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 20 Feb 2020


  • Bio-fuels
  • Bio-oil upgrading
  • Deoxygenation
  • Ex-situ pyrolysis
  • Heterogeneous catalysis
  • Li-LSX-zeolite
  • Microalgae pyrolysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Control and Optimization
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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