Sponge-microbe associations and their importance for sponge bioprocess engineering

Ronald Osinga, Evelyn Armstrong, J. Grant Burgess, Friederike Hoffmann, Joachim Reitner, Gabriela Schumann-Kindel

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    68 Citations (Scopus)


    In recent years, a large diversity of sponge-microbe associations has been described: sponges can harbour archaea, eubacteria (including cyanobacteria), microalgae, fungi and probably also protozoa. The current paper gives a brief overview of the different types of associations and describes the potential influence of symbiotic micro-organisms on bioprocess design for the biotechnological production of sponge-associated natural compounds. It is concluded that the presence of microsymbionts may further complicate the already tedious development of sponge culturing techniques.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)55-62
    Number of pages8
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2001


    • Biotechnology
    • Sponges
    • Symbiosis


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