Solar PV technology has emerged as one of the most matured and fast evolving renewable energy technologies and it is expected that it will play a major role in the future global electricity generation mix. Keeping the rapid development of the PV technology into consideration, this chapter systematically documents the evolution of solar PV material as well as the PV applications and PV markets. It also provides insight into the trend in batteries and inverters used for solar PV applications. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of different PV technologies and its development is summarized. The rest of the chapter aims at providing a comprehensive analysis of solar radiation measurement and modelling techniques to assess the availability of solar radiation at different locations. The chapter presents comprehensive information for solar energy engineers, architects and other practitioners.