Simulation and Design Optimization of Germanium-on-Silicon Single Photon Avalanche Diodes

Charles Smith, Jarosław Kirdoda, Derek C. S. Dumas, Conor Coughlan, Charlie McCarthy, Hannah Mowbray, Muhammad Mirza, Fiona Fleming, Xin Yi, Lisa Saalbach, Gerald S. Buller, Douglas J. Paul*, Ross W. Millar*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)
42 Downloads (Pure)


Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are semiconductor photodiode detectors capable of detecting individual photons, typically with sub-ns precision timing. We have previously demonstrated novel pseudo-planar germanium-on-silicon SPADs with absorption into the short-wave infrared, which promise lower costs and potentially easier CMOS integration compared to III-V SPADs. Here we have simulated the dark count rate of these devices, using a custom solver for McIntyre's avalanche model and a trap assisted tunnelling generation model. Calibration and fitting have been performed using experimental data and the results have highlighted areas in which the technology can be optimised.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSilicon Photonics XVIII
EditorsGraham T. Reed, Andrew P. Knights
ISBN (Electronic)9781510659582
ISBN (Print)9781510659575
Publication statusPublished - 13 Mar 2023
EventSPIE OPTO 2023 - San Francisco, United States
Duration: 28 Jan 20233 Feb 2023

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


ConferenceSPIE OPTO 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco


  • device simulation
  • Ge-on-Si
  • Si Photonics
  • Single photon avalanche diode

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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