This article reviews existing clinical practices and sensor research undertaken to monitor foetal well-being during labour. Current clinical practices that include foetal heart rate monitoring and foetal scalp blood sampling are shown to be either inadequate or time-consuming. Monitoring of lactate in blood is identified as a potential alternative for intrapartum foetal monitoring, due to its ability to distinguish between different types of acidosis. A literature review from a medical and technical perspective is presented to identify the current advancements in the field of lactate sensors for this application. It is concluded that a less invasive and a continuous monitoring device is required to fulfil the clinical needs for intrapartum foetal monitoring. Potential specifications for such a system are also presented.