Our ability to trust that a random number is truly random is essential for fields as diverse as cryptography and fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. Existing solutions both come with drawbacks—device-independent quantum random number generators (QRNGs) are highly impractical and standard semi-device-independent QRNGs are limited to a specific physical implementation and level of trust. Here we propose a framework for semi-device-independent randomness certification, using a source of trusted vacuum in the form of a signal shutter. It employs a flexible set of assumptions and levels of trust, allowing it to be applied in a wide range of physical scenarios involving both quantum and classical entropy sources. We experimentally demonstrate our protocol with a photonic setup and generate secure random bits under three different assumptions with varying degrees of security and resulting data rates.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Science (miscellaneous)
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Computer Networks and Communications
- Computational Theory and Mathematics