Self-Sensing Paper Actuators Based on Graphite-Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Films

Morteza Amjadi, Metin Sitti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

129 Citations (Scopus)
60 Downloads (Pure)


Soft actuators have demonstrated potential in a range of applications, including soft robotics, artificial muscles, and biomimetic devices. However, the majority of current soft actuators suffer from the lack of real‐time sensory feedback, prohibiting their effective sensing and multitask function. Here, a promising strategy is reported to design bilayer electrothermal actuators capable of simultaneous actuation and sensation (i.e., self‐sensing actuators), merely through two input electric terminals. Decoupled electrothermal stimulation and strain sensation is achieved by the optimal combination of graphite microparticles and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the form of hybrid films. By finely tuning the charge transport properties of hybrid films, the signal‐to‐noise ratio (SNR) of self‐sensing actuators is remarkably enhanced to over 66. As a result, self‐sensing actuators can actively track their displacement and distinguish the touch of soft and hard objects.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1800239
JournalAdvanced Science
Issue number7
Early online date16 May 2018
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2018


  • carbon nanotubes
  • graphite
  • hybrid films
  • self-sensing actuators
  • strain sensors


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