Enzymes from the PDE (phosphodiesterase) 4 cAMP-specific PDE family are crucial for the maintenance of compartmentalized cAMP responses in many cell types. Regulation of PDE activity can be achieved via post-translational modification such as phosphorylation by ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases) and PKA (protein kinase A). In the present paper, we report for the first time that PDE4 isoforms from the PDE4A and PDE4D subfamilies can be selectively modified by SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier). We have identified a single SUMO site within a consensus tetrapeptide motif, ?KXE (where ? represents a hydrophobic residue), which lies in the catalytic unit of these enzymes. SUMO modification of PDE4 at this site was observed upon overexpression of the SUMO E3 ligase PIASy [protein inhibitor of activated STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) Y] in HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells and we identify PIASy as a novel binding partner for long PDE4 isoforms. Site-directed mutagenesis of the acceptor lysine residue ablated conjugation of PDE4 with SUMO, suggesting the presence of a single SUMO site in the first subdomain of the conserved PDE4 catalytic unit. This observation was supported by both cell-free in vitro SUMOylation assays and analysis of SUMOylated spot-immobilized peptide arrays. SUMO modification of long PDE4 isoforms serves to augment their activation by PKA phosphorylation and repress their inhibition by ERK phosphorylation. Following ligation of ß-adrenergic receptors, SUMOylation of PDE4 isoforms sufficiently amplified PKA-stimulated PDE4 activity to reduce markedly the PKA phosphorylation status of the ß2-adrenergic receptor. These results highlight a new means whereby cells might achieve the selective regulation of the activity of cAMP-specific PDE4 enyzmes. © The Authors.
- Peptide array
- Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4)
- Protein inhibitor of activated signal transducer and activator of transcription Y (PIASy)
- Small ubiquitin-related modified (SUMO)