"Selecting the right tool for the job" a narrative overview of experimental methods used to measure or estimate active and passive drag in competitive swimming

Gina Sacilotto, Ross Sanders, Tomohiro Gonjo, Daniel Marinho, Bruce Mason, Roozbeh Naemi, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Christopher Papic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Free-swimming performance depends strongly on the ability to develop propulsive force and minimise resistive drag. Therefore, estimating resistive drag (passive or active) may be important to understand how free-swimming performance can be improved. The purpose of this narrative overview was to describe and discuss experimental methods of measuring or estimating active and passive drag relevant to competitive swimming. Studies were identified using a mixed-model approach comprising a search of SCOPUS and Web of Science data bases, follow-up of relevant studies cited in manuscripts from the primary search, and additional studies identified by the co-authors based on their specific areas of fluid dynamics expertise. The utility and limitations of active and passive drag methods were critically discussed with reference to primary research domains in this field, 'swimmer morphology' and 'technique analysis'. This overview and the subsequent discussions provide implications for researchers when selecting an appropriate method to measure resistive forces (active or passive) relevant to improving performance in free-swimming.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1572-1589
Number of pages18
JournalSports Biomechanics
Volume22
Issue number12
Early online date20 Apr 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Dec 2023

Keywords

  • Swimming
  • force measurement
  • kinematics
  • kinetics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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