Seismic performance evaluation of high‐post‐yield stiffness concentrically braced steel frames under mainshock‐consistent‐aftershock sequences

Mahmoud Hassan*, Nevena Sipcic, George Vasdravellis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
63 Downloads (Pure)


Structures may be subjected to earthquake sequences after major mainshock (MS) events in seismically active sites within a short time. As a result, they may be susceptible to damage accumulation, which may hinder their performance under consecutive seismic loading. This study evaluates the effects of earthquake sequences on the seismic performance of seismic‐resistant concentrically braced steel frames designed to Eurocode‐8. The frames under investigation have concentric chevron‐type braces with replaceable hourglass‐shaped pins made of duplex stainless steel. The seismic energy is dissipated through inelastic deformations concentrated in the pins while keeping the other members elastic. The stainless‐steel pins provide the frame with high‐post‐yield stiffness to reduce the residual drifts after a seismic event. The seismic behaviour of the frame is assessed using site hazard‐specific mainshock‐consistent‐aftershock (MS‐AS) sequences selected for a site in Terni, Central Italy. Nonlinear back‐to‐back dynamic analyses are performed at multiple intensity levels while adopting detailed numerical nonlinear models created in OpenSees. We show that the implemented behaviour factor satisfies the life safety assurance objective while keeping the maximum residual inter‐storey drifts below 1/300 to permit an easy substitution of the damaged pins after the design‐level earthquake without being curtailed by the potential following events. We then develop prediction models for the damage accumulation in the pins, considering different energy‐based intensity measures and we show that the cumulative absolute velocity‐based model is the most efficient predictor in this particular case. Finally, the damage accumulation in the pins is evaluated, confirming their superior low‐cycle fatigue capacity under earthquake sequences.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2222-2250
Number of pages29
JournalEarthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics
Issue number7
Early online date21 Mar 2023
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023


  • energy-dissipative steel brace
  • high-post-yield stiffness braced steel frame
  • mainshock-consistent-aftershock sequences
  • replaceable energy-dissipative pins
  • residual drift reduction
  • seismic-resistant braced steel frame

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)


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