Role of amine oxidase expression to maintain putrescine homeostasis in Rhodococcus opacus

Alexander Foster, Nicole Barnes, Robert Speight, Peter Christian Morris, Mark A Keane

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

While applications of amine oxidases are increasing, few have been characterised and our understanding of their biological role and strategies for bacteria exploitation are limited. By altering the nitrogen source (NH4Cl, putrescine and cadaverine (diamines) and butylamine (monoamine)) and concentration, we have identified a constitutive Flavin dependent oxidase (EC 1.4.3.10) within Rhodococcus opacus. The activity of this oxidase can be increased by over two orders of magnitude in the presence of aliphatic diamines. In addition, the expression of a copper dependent diamine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.22) was observed at diamine concentrations >1 mM or when cells were grown with butylamine, which acts to inhibit the flavin oxidase. A Michaelis-Menten kinetic treatment of the flavin oxidase delivered a Michaelis constant (K-M) = 190 mu M and maximum rate (k(cat)) = 21.8 s(-1) for the oxidative deamination of putrescine with a lower K-M (=60 mu M) and comparable k(cat) (=18.2 s(-1)) for the copper oxidase. MALDI-TOF and genomic analyses have indicated a metabolic clustering of functionally related genes. From a consideration of amine oxidase specificity and sequence homology, we propose a putrescine degradation pathway within Rhodococcus that utilises oxidases in tandem with subsequent dehydrogenase and transaminase enzymes. The implications of PUT homeostasis through the action of the two oxidases are discussed with respect to stressors, evolution and application in microbe-assisted phytoremediation or bio-augmentation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)286-295
Number of pages10
JournalEnzyme and Microbial Technology
Volume52
Issue number4-5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Apr 2013

Fingerprint

Rhodococcus
Putrescine
Amines
Oxidoreductases
Homeostasis
Diamines
Butylamines
putrescine oxidase
Cadaverine
Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing)
Deamination
Environmental Biodegradation
Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Sequence Homology
Transaminases
Cluster Analysis
Copper
Nitrogen
Bacteria
Enzymes

Keywords

  • Amine oxidase
  • Rhodococcus opacus
  • MALDI-TOF analysis
  • Genomic analysis
  • Oxidative deamination kinetics
  • PSEUDOMONAS-AERUGINOSA PAO1
  • ESCHERICHIA-COLI K-12
  • MICROCOCCUS-RUBENS
  • AMINOBUTYRALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE
  • KLEBSIELLA-AEROGENES
  • GENUS RHODOCOCCUS
  • POLYAMINES
  • GENOME
  • CELL
  • PROTEINS

Cite this

Foster, Alexander ; Barnes, Nicole ; Speight, Robert ; Morris, Peter Christian ; Keane, Mark A. / Role of amine oxidase expression to maintain putrescine homeostasis in Rhodococcus opacus. In: Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 2013 ; Vol. 52, No. 4-5. pp. 286-295.
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Role of amine oxidase expression to maintain putrescine homeostasis in Rhodococcus opacus. / Foster, Alexander; Barnes, Nicole; Speight, Robert; Morris, Peter Christian; Keane, Mark A.

In: Enzyme and Microbial Technology, Vol. 52, No. 4-5, 10.04.2013, p. 286-295.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Role of amine oxidase expression to maintain putrescine homeostasis in Rhodococcus opacus

AU - Foster, Alexander

AU - Barnes, Nicole

AU - Speight, Robert

AU - Morris, Peter Christian

AU - Keane, Mark A

N1 - Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PY - 2013/4/10

Y1 - 2013/4/10

N2 - While applications of amine oxidases are increasing, few have been characterised and our understanding of their biological role and strategies for bacteria exploitation are limited. By altering the nitrogen source (NH4Cl, putrescine and cadaverine (diamines) and butylamine (monoamine)) and concentration, we have identified a constitutive Flavin dependent oxidase (EC 1.4.3.10) within Rhodococcus opacus. The activity of this oxidase can be increased by over two orders of magnitude in the presence of aliphatic diamines. In addition, the expression of a copper dependent diamine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.22) was observed at diamine concentrations >1 mM or when cells were grown with butylamine, which acts to inhibit the flavin oxidase. A Michaelis-Menten kinetic treatment of the flavin oxidase delivered a Michaelis constant (K-M) = 190 mu M and maximum rate (k(cat)) = 21.8 s(-1) for the oxidative deamination of putrescine with a lower K-M (=60 mu M) and comparable k(cat) (=18.2 s(-1)) for the copper oxidase. MALDI-TOF and genomic analyses have indicated a metabolic clustering of functionally related genes. From a consideration of amine oxidase specificity and sequence homology, we propose a putrescine degradation pathway within Rhodococcus that utilises oxidases in tandem with subsequent dehydrogenase and transaminase enzymes. The implications of PUT homeostasis through the action of the two oxidases are discussed with respect to stressors, evolution and application in microbe-assisted phytoremediation or bio-augmentation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

AB - While applications of amine oxidases are increasing, few have been characterised and our understanding of their biological role and strategies for bacteria exploitation are limited. By altering the nitrogen source (NH4Cl, putrescine and cadaverine (diamines) and butylamine (monoamine)) and concentration, we have identified a constitutive Flavin dependent oxidase (EC 1.4.3.10) within Rhodococcus opacus. The activity of this oxidase can be increased by over two orders of magnitude in the presence of aliphatic diamines. In addition, the expression of a copper dependent diamine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.22) was observed at diamine concentrations >1 mM or when cells were grown with butylamine, which acts to inhibit the flavin oxidase. A Michaelis-Menten kinetic treatment of the flavin oxidase delivered a Michaelis constant (K-M) = 190 mu M and maximum rate (k(cat)) = 21.8 s(-1) for the oxidative deamination of putrescine with a lower K-M (=60 mu M) and comparable k(cat) (=18.2 s(-1)) for the copper oxidase. MALDI-TOF and genomic analyses have indicated a metabolic clustering of functionally related genes. From a consideration of amine oxidase specificity and sequence homology, we propose a putrescine degradation pathway within Rhodococcus that utilises oxidases in tandem with subsequent dehydrogenase and transaminase enzymes. The implications of PUT homeostasis through the action of the two oxidases are discussed with respect to stressors, evolution and application in microbe-assisted phytoremediation or bio-augmentation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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KW - Genomic analysis

KW - Oxidative deamination kinetics

KW - PSEUDOMONAS-AERUGINOSA PAO1

KW - ESCHERICHIA-COLI K-12

KW - MICROCOCCUS-RUBENS

KW - AMINOBUTYRALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE

KW - KLEBSIELLA-AEROGENES

KW - GENUS RHODOCOCCUS

KW - POLYAMINES

KW - GENOME

KW - CELL

KW - PROTEINS

U2 - 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2013.01.003

DO - 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2013.01.003

M3 - Article

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EP - 295

JO - Enzyme and Microbial Technology

JF - Enzyme and Microbial Technology

SN - 0141-0229

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